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Arterial stiffness: A brief review

1 School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien; Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chiayi, Taiwan
2 School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University; Division of Nephrology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Bang-Gee Hsu,
Division of Nephrology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 707, Section 3, Chung.Yang Road, Hualien
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Source of Support: This study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST-106-2314-B-303-019-MY3), and Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taiwan (TCMF-MP 107-01-01)., Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_44_20

Apart from the result of multiple diseases as well as aging, arterial stiffness (AS) predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD have high CVD prevalence, and an extraordinarily high risk for CVD might be related to nontraditional risk factors, including AS. The mechanism of AS development could be attributed to oxidative stress, inflammation, uremic milieu (e.g., uremic toxins), vascular calcification, and cumulative effects of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on arteries such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension. There were a variety of non-invasive techniques to measure AS. One of these techniques is carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity, which is the reference measurement of AS and is related to long-term CVD outcomes. AS progression has corresponding medical treatments with modest beneficial results. This review briefly discusses the risk factors, measurements, and treatments associated with AS.

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