Ultrastructural changes in the underactive bladder
Han-Chen Ho1, Yung-Hsiang Hsu2, Jia-Fong Jhang3, Yuan-Hong Jiang3, Hann-Chorng Kuo3
1 Department of Anatomy, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
2 Department of Pathology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
3 Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 707, Chung.Yang Road, Section 3, Hualien
Source of Support: This study was funded by TCMMP 109-02-03, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation., Conflict of Interest: None
Underactive bladder (UAB) is a symptom complex suggestive of detrusor underactivity (DU). Although it implies a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, many other conditions such as advanced age, neurogenic factors, and bladder outlet obstruction also lead to UAB. The current understanding of the pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is limited. We believe that by identifying the morphological changes associated with UAB might shed light on this. Therefore, we searched literature with keywords of electron microscopy, ultrastructure, UAB, and DU to review current ultrastructural evidence concerning UAB.