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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 282-287

Surgical management of abdominal tuberculosis: A prospective single-center study


1 Department of Surgery, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India
2 Department Surgical Gastroenterology, Nishtha Surgical Hospital and Research Centre, Patan, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Surgery, SSR Medical College, Belle Rive, Mauritius

Correspondence Address:
Vipul D Yagnik
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Nishtha Surgical Hospital and Research Centre, Patan - 384 265, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_206_20

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Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is estimated that in 2018, 10 million people were affected with TB worldwide and there were 1.2 million TB deaths among human immunodeficiency virus-negative people. India has the highest TB burden in the world (27%), a significant proportion of which are of intestinal TB. The aims of this study were to assess clinical features and investigations for the diagnosis of abdominal TB and to analyze its various surgical manifestations and its management. Materials and Methods: From October 1, 2014, to October 30, 2016, a total of 50 patients meeting the inclusion criteria for the study, age between 15 and 65 years and diagnosis of symptomatic intestinal TB requiring surgery, were enrolled in the study. We used descriptive statistics to analyze the data. Results: Abdominal TB was most commonly seen in young adults. Intestinal obstruction was the most frequent presentation. The most common site of involvement in the present study was the ileum. Ultrasonography (USG) and X-ray were an integral part of the diagnosis, with computed tomography (CT) scan being rarely required. Although both anemia and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are nonspecific, they may help in supporting the clinical and pathological findings. Most operations were elective, with intestinal obstruction being the most common indication and resection and end-to-end anastomosis performed most often. Histopathological examination was performed in all patients and showed caseating granuloma in 90% of cases, while 10% of cases had chronic noncaseating granulomas with ill-defined aggregates of epithelioid histiocytes. Conclusion: Abdominal TB causes a significant problem in diagnosis due to nonspecific symptomatology and lack of specific laboratory tests. USG and X-ray were an integral part of the diagnosis. CT scan is rarely required. Although anemia and ESR are both nonspecific features, they may help in supporting the clinical and pathological findings. The most common site of involvement in the present study was the ileum. Intestinal obstruction was the most common indication for operation, with resection and end-to-end anastomosis being the most common operation. The mainstay of treatment is medical therapy and timely surgical intervention is required in a sizable number of patients.


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