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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Expression of chondrogenic genes in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells treated with different concentrations (0%, 4%, and 25%) of hyaluronic acid. After extracting mRNA from the human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, we conducted quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of the gene expression of chondrogenic markers including transcription factor (a) type-II collagen (COL2A1), (b) aggrecan, (c) SOX9, and (d) MMP13, with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serving as an internal control. Threshold cycle (Ct) values were obtained for each target gene and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a control for normalization, and fold expression (relative to control [without hyaluronic acid]) was measured using the 2−ΔΔCt method. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. RQ: relative quantification

Figure 3: Expression of chondrogenic genes in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells treated with different concentrations (0%, 4%, and 25%) of hyaluronic acid. After extracting mRNA from the human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, we conducted quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of the gene expression of chondrogenic markers including transcription factor (a) type-II collagen <i>(COL2A1)</i>, <i>(b) aggrecan</i>, (c) <i>SOX9</i>, and (d) <i>MMP13</i>, with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serving as an internal control. Threshold cycle (Ct) values were obtained for each target gene and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a control for normalization, and fold expression (relative to control [without hyaluronic acid]) was measured using the 2−ΔΔCt method. **<i>P</i> < 0.01, ***<i>P</i> < 0.001. RQ: relative quantification