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  Most popular articles (Since March 10, 2017)

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES - CLINICAL
Recent advances in recurrent urinary tract infection from pathogenesis and biomarkers to prevention
Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
July-September 2017, 29(3):131-137
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_53_17  PMID:28974905
Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) might be one of the most common problems in urological clinics. Recent research has revealed novel evidence about recurrent UTI and it should be considered a different disease from the first infection. The pathogenesis of recurrent UTI might include two mechanisms, bacterial factors and deficiencies in host defense. Bacterial survival in the urinary bladder after antibiotic treatment and progression to form intracellular bacterial communities might be the most important bacterial factors. In host defense deficiency, a defect in pathogen recognition and urothelial barrier function impairment play the most important roles. Immunodeficiency and urogenital tract anatomical abnormalities have been considered the essential risk factors for recurrent UTI. In healthy women, voiding dysfunction and behavioral factors also increase the risk of recurrent UTI. Sexual intercourse and estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women might have the strongest association with recurrent UTI. Traditional lifestyle factors such as fluid intake and diet are not considered independent risk factors now. Serum and urine biomarkers to predict recurrent UTI from the first infection have also attracted a wide attention recently. Current clinical evidence suggests that serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor and urinary nerve growth factor have potential predictive value for recurrent UTI. Clinical trials have proven the efficacy of the oral immunoactive agent OM-89 for the prevention of UTI. Vaccines for recurrent UTI are recommended by the latest guidelines and are available on the market.
  2,602 429 -
Impact of vegan diets on gut microbiota: An update on the clinical implications
Ming-Wun Wong, Chih-Hsun Yi, Tso-Tsai Liu, Wei-Yi Lei, Jui-Sheng Hung, Chin-Lon Lin, Shinn-Zong Lin, Chien-Lin Chen
October-December 2018, 30(4):200-203
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_21_18  PMID:30305781
Numerous studies indicate that microbiota plays an important role in human health. Diet is a factor related to microbiota which also influences human health. The relationships between diet, microbiota, and human health are complex. This review focuses on the current literature on vegan diets and their unique impact on gut microbiota. We also report on the health benefits of a vegan diet for metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and rheumatoid arthritis concerning relevant impacts from gut microbiota. Despite evidence supporting the clinical relevance of vegan gut microbiota to human health, the whole mechanism awaits further investigation.
  2,490 346 1
A review of ovary torsion
Ci Huang, Mun-Kun Hong, Dah-Ching Ding
July-September 2017, 29(3):143-147
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_55_17  PMID:28974907
Ovarian torsion is a rare but emergency condition in women. Early diagnosis is necessary to preserve the function of the ovaries and tubes and prevent severe morbidity. Ovarian torsion refers to complete or partial rotation of the adnexal supporting organ with ischemia. It can affect females of all ages. Ovarian torsion occurs in around 2%–15% of patients who have surgical treatment of adnexal masses. The main risk in ovarian torsion is an ovarian mass. The most common symptom of ovarian torsion is acute onset of pelvic pain, followed by nausea and vomiting. Pelvic ultrasonography can provide information on ovarian cysts. Once ovarian torsion is suspected, surgery or detorsion is the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment.
  2,355 273 4
Current consensus and controversy on the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia
Chun-Hou Liao, Hann-Chorng Kuo
January-March 2017, 29(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_2_17  PMID:28757756
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent in men and increase with age. Because LUTS are common among elderly men, they are usually considered synonymous with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Drugs should be the first-line treatment for BPH and surgical intervention should be performed only when there are complications or LUTS refractory to medical treatment. In addition to medical treatment, several minimally invasive therapies, such as thermal therapy, prostatic lift, laser evaporation, or laser enucleation techniques have been developed. Recent investigations have also revealed that bladder dysfunction such as detrusor overactivity and detrusor underactivity may also contribute to male LUTS. In the treatment of LUTS suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH), the following questions should be considered: Is there an obstruction? Are we treating BPH or LUTS? Can management targeting BPH reduce LUTS? Should patients with LUTS be treated before bladder outlet obstruction is confirmed? What is the role of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) nowadays? Will new techniques provide better outcomes than TURP? This article discusses the current consensus and controversies in the treatment of LUTS/BPH.
  2,163 315 -
Treatment of acute bipolar depression
Yu-Chih Shen
July-September 2018, 30(3):141-147
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_71_18  PMID:30069121
Depression is the predominant pole of disability in bipolar disorder and compared with mania/hypomania, has less systematic research guiding the development of treatment especially in its acute phase (acute bipolar depression). The deficiency in the management of the acute bipolar depression largely reflects the natural divergence of opinion resulting from significant knowledge gaps. At present, there are only 3 approved drug treatments for acute bipolar depression: olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine (immediate or extended release), and lurasidone (monotherapy or adjunctive to lithium or valproate). Nonapproved agents and nonpharmacologic treatment such as lamotrigine, antidepressants, modafinil, pramipexole, ketamine, and electroconvulsive therapy are often prescribed to treat acute bipolar depression. This article discusses the challenges of diagnosing bipolar depression, and reviews above treatment options for acute bipolar depression.
  2,030 262 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Assessment of perceived stress and association with sleep quality and attributed stressors among 1st-year medical students: A cross-sectional study from Karwar, Karnataka, India
Clevin Rashmi Rebello, Prasad Budri Kallingappa, Preethi G Hegde
October-December 2018, 30(4):221-226
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_85_17  PMID:30305785
Objectives: The objective is to study the extent of perceived stress among 1st-year medical students using the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14) and its association with sleep quality as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and attributed stressors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 121 1st-year medical students at Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar, Karnataka, India. The extent of their stress was assessed using the PSS-14 and their sleep quality was assessed using the PSQI. Graded stress exerted by the attributed stressors was also assessed. Results: A total of 33.8% of participants had perceived stress scores of >28. Among academic stressors, performance in examinations (34.7%), lack of time for recreation (30.6%), curriculum (24.8%), and frequency of examinations (24.8%) were the highest rated stressors. Quality of food in the mess (50.4%) and lack of entertainment in the institution (39.7%) were the highest rated psychosocial stressors. There was a positive correlation between the PSS-14 scores and various academic stressors and the global PSQI score. Conclusion: First-year medical students reported a high level of stress, including academic and psychosocial stressors. Effective changes in the curriculum and living conditions can reduce the level of stress among these students.
  1,979 181 -
Prevalence, risk factors, and antimalarial resistance patterns of falciparum plasmodiasis among pregnant women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria
Maryam Muhammad Aliyu, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Yahaya Abdullahi Umar, Anthony Philip Vanstawa, Jessy Thomas Medugu, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Dele Ohinoyi Amadu
April-June 2017, 29(2):98-103
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_22_17  PMID:28757774
Objective: Pregnant women infected with malaria represent a significant obstetric problem, especially in the face of antimalarial resistance. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, associated risk factors as well as the antimalarial resistance pattern of Plasmodium isolates from pregnant women attending four selected secondary health facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 353 pregnant women attending selected hospitals. Malaria microscopy and parasite density count were conducted based on standard protocols. Antimalarial susceptibility test (using chloroquine, artesunate, artether, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine), and hemoglobin concentrations were determined using schizont maturation assay and methemoglobin method, respectively. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) was defined by resistance against ≥3 antimalarial drugs. Results: The overall prevalence of plasmodiasis was 22.4%. Out of those infected, 5.2% was found to be anemic. Malaria parasitemia was significantly associated with parity, residential area, age of women, and use of preventive measures against malaria (P < 0.05) but not with hemoglobin concentration, occupation, and trimester of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Malaria parasites from the pregnant women exhibited the highest resistance against chloroquine, 75 (94.9%) followed Artemether, 30 (37.9%) then sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 29 (36.7%) and least resistant to artesunate, 28 (35.4%). The prevalence of MDR was 40.5% (32/79). Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria was relatively high due to inadequate and/or ineffective preventive measures adopted by pregnant women. More so, significant isolates of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited MDR against antimalarial agents tested.
  1,995 149 -
REVIEW ARTICLES - CLINICAL
Current consensus and controversy on the diagnosis of male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia
Cheng-Ling Lee, Hann-Chorng Kuo
January-March 2017, 29(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_3_17  PMID:28757757
Traditionally, male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been considered a synonym for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) because most male LUTS develops in aging men. Medical treatment should be the first-line treatment for BPH and surgical intervention should be performed when there are complications or LUTS refractory to medical treatment. Recent investigations have revealed that bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction contribute equally to male LUTS. In the diagnosis of LUTS suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH), the following questions should be considered: Is there an obstruction? Are the LUTS caused by an enlarged prostate? What are the appropriate tools to diagnose an obstructive BPH? Should patients with LUTS be treated before bladder outlet obstruction is confirmed? This article discusses the current consensus and controversies in the diagnosis of LUTS/BPH.
  1,908 230 -
Current pharmacological and surgical treatment of underactive bladder
Yuan-Hong Jiang, Cheng-Ling Lee, Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
October-December 2017, 29(4):187-191
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_122_17  PMID:29296045
Underactive bladder (UAB) or detrusor underactivity (DU) is a common yet still poorly understood urological problem. In addition to true detrusor failure and neuropathy, the inhibitory effects of detrusor contraction by the striated urethral sphincter and the bladder neck through alpha-adrenergic activity may also play a role in the development of UAB or DU. Treatment of UAB or DU aims to reduce the postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume and increase voiding efficiency, either by spontaneous voiding or abdominal straining. Pharmacotherapy with parasympathomimetics or cholinesterase inhibitors might be tried, and benefits can be achieved in combination with alpha-blockers. Bladder outlet surgeries, including urethral onabotulinumtoxinA injection, transurethral incision of the bladder neck, and transurethral incision or resection of the prostate can effectively improve voiding efficiency and decrease the PVR in most patients with DU. The mechanisms have not been well elucidated. It is likely that ablation of the bladder neck or prostatic urethra might not only decrease bladder outlet resistance but also abolish the sympathetic hyperactivity which inhibits detrusor contractility in patients with idiopathic UAB or DU.
  1,895 194 -
Clinical manifestations and basic mechanisms of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
Chiu-Fen Yang
October-December 2018, 30(4):209-215
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_33_18  PMID:30305783
Acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a significant, unsolved clinical puzzle. In the disease context of acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion remains the only effective strategy to salvage ischemic myocardium, but it also causes additional damage. Myocardial I/R injury is composed of four types of damage, and these events attenuate the benefits of reperfusion therapy. Thus, inventing new strategies to conquer I/R injury is an unmet clinical need. A variety of pathological processes and mediators, including changes in the pH, generation of reactive oxygen radicals, and intracellular calcium overload, are proposed to be crucial in I/R-related cell injury. Among the intracellular events that occur during I/R, we stress the importance of protein phosphorylation signaling and elaborate its regulation. A variety of protein kinase pathways could be activated in I/R, including reperfusion injury salvage kinase and survivor-activating factor enhancement pathways, which are critical to cardiomyocyte survival. In addition to serine/threonine phosphorylation signaling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation is also critical in multiple cell functions and survival. However, the roles of protein kinases and phosphatases in I/R have not been extensively studied yet. By better understanding the mechanisms of I/R injury, we may have a better chance to develop new strategies for I/R injury and apply them in the clinical patient care.
  1,803 226 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Vegetarian diet, food substitution, and nonalcoholic fatty liver
Tina H Chiu, Ming-Nan Lin, Wen-Harn Pan, Yen-Ching Chen, Chin-Lon Lin
April-June 2018, 30(2):102-109
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_109_17  PMID:29875591
Objectives: Vegetarian diets have been shown to improve insulin resistance and reduce body weight, but the effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver require further confirmation. We aim to investigate the association between vegetarian diets, major food groups, and nonalcoholic fatty liver, and to compare the degree of liver fibrosis between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in those with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Tzu Chi Health Study which included 2127 nonvegetarians and 1273 vegetarians who did not smoke or habitually drink alcohol and had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Fatty liver and liver fibrosis were determined using ultrasonography and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, respectively. Diet was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Vegetarian diets were associated with lower odds of fatty liver (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.91) after adjusting for age, gender, education, history of smoking and alcohol drinking. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) attenuated the protective association. Vegetarians had less severe fibrosis than nonvegetarians. Replacing a serving of soy with a serving of meat or fish was associated with 12%–13% increased risk, and replacing a serving of whole grains with a serving of refined grains, fruits, and fruit juice was associated with 3%–12% increased the risk of fatty liver. Conclusion: Vegetarian diets, replacing meat and fish with soy, and replacing refined carbohydrates with whole grains, may be inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver related to BMI.
  1,855 172 1
Increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with pectus excavatum: A pilot study
Yeung-Leung Cheng, I-Shiang Tzeng, Mei-Chen Yang
October-December 2018, 30(4):233-237
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_115_17  PMID:30305787
Objective: Laryngomalacia is the most common congenital laryngeal anomaly and is associated with pectus excavatum (PE). Patients with laryngomalacia and patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) both experience upper airway obstruction, and patients with laryngomalacia had been found to have a higher prevalence of PE. However, no studies have established the prevalence of OSA in patients with PE. We conducted this pilot study to evaluate the prevalence of OSA in patients with PE. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients ≥20 years old with PE who were admitted for Nuss surgery to correct PE in Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital between October 2015 and September 2016 were invited to participate in the study; 31 of the 42 patients agreed. All 31 patients completed an Epworth sleepiness scale questionnaire to evaluate excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and underwent overnight polysomnography to evaluate OSA before Nuss surgery. Results: The prevalence of snoring in the study participants was 100%. Ten of 31 patients (32.3%) reported EDS. The overall prevalence of OSA with an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5/h was 25.8%, and all patients with OSA were men. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in patients with PE seemed to be higher than that previously reported in the general population, implying that OSA might be a potential etiology or, at least, an aggravating factor for the development or progression of PE or might be responsible for the postoperative recurrence of PE in some patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
  1,847 117 -
Vegetarian diet and blood pressure in a hospital-base study
Hao-Wen Liu, Jia-Sin Liu, Ko-Lin Kuo
July-September 2018, 30(3):176-180
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_91_17  PMID:30069127
Objective: Previous studies have reported that a vegetarian diet may lower blood pressure (BP), but the effect of diet on BP in asymptomatic participants with proteinuria is unknown. We examined the association of diet and BP in individuals with or without proteinuria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from participants who were more than 40 years old and received physical checkups at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from September 5, 2005, to December 31, 2016. Diets were assessed at baseline by a self-reported questionnaire and categorized as vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, or omnivore. There were 2818 (7.7%) vegans, 5616 (15.3%) lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 28,183 (77.0%) omnivores. The effect of different parameters on BP was determined using a multivariate multiple linear regression model with no intercept, with control for important characteristics and lifestyle confounders. Results: The vegan group had a lower mean systolic BP (−3.87 mmHg, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (−2.48 mmHg, P < 0.001) than the omnivore group. Participants with proteinuria had a higher systolic BP (4.26 mmHg, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (2.15 mmHg, P < 0.001) than those without proteinuria. Interaction analysis indicated that vegan participants with proteinuria had a lower systolic BP (−2.73 mmHg, P = 0.046) and diastolic BP (−2.54 mmHg, P = 0.013) than other participants with proteinuria. However, individuals in the lacto-ovo group with proteinuria had a BP similar to other participants with proteinuria. Conclusions: A vegan diet was associated with lower BP in asymptomatic participants with proteinuria. This diet could be a nonpharmacologic method to reduce BP.
  1,741 202 1
REVIEW ARTICLE - CLINICAL
Evidence-based review and appraisal of the use of droperidol in the emergency department
Pei-Chun Lai, Yen-Ta Huang
January-March 2018, 30(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_195_17  PMID:29643708
Droperidol is a short-acting, potent dopamine D2 antagonist that can pass through the blood–brain barrier. A black box warning was issued for droperidol by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2001 because of a risk of development of torsades de pointes induced by QT prolongation. Many experts feel that the incidence of arrhythmia is overestimated, and low-dose droperidol is almost always used by anesthesiologists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review, we used evidence-based analysis to appraise high-quality studies with a low risk of bias published after 2001 on the use of droperidol in the emergency department (ED). Droperidol appears not only efficacious but also safe to treat patients with nausea/vomiting, acute psychosis, and migraine in the ED. For these conditions, droperidol may be an option for shared decision-making.
  1,701 173 -
REVIEW ARTICLES - CLINICAL
Treatment strategies for neuromyelitis optica
Tzu-Lun Huang, Kung-Hung Lin, Jia-Kang Wang, Rong-Kung Tsai
October-December 2018, 30(4):204-208
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_102_18  PMID:30305782
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with pathogenic autoantibodies that act against the astrocyte water channel protein, i.e. aquaporin-4: the disease is associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis (ON) and transverse myelitis, often resulting in severe disability. The main goals in treatment of NMO include acute symptomatic therapy and long-term stabilization of symptoms by preventing relapse. In recent years, ongoing randomized controlled trials in NMO patients have studied evidence for treatment. Briefly, acute-stage management (with pulse therapy using corticosteroids and/or plasmapheresis) and maintenance therapy (including rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and azathioprine) have been recommended in some case series and retrospective studies. Because of the high prevalence of liver disease, all NMO patients in Taiwan should be screened for hepatitis B and C before treatment is initiated. Although immunosuppression and plasma exchange are the mainstays of therapy for NMO ON, several selective and potentially therapeutic strategies targeting specific steps in NMO pathogenesis including blockers of NMO-IgG binding and inhibitors of granulocyte function have been evaluated in recent years.
  1,610 243 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis in Basrah, Iraq
Haider K Saeed, Ahmed M Al-Abbasi, Shukryia K Al-Maliki, Jasim N Al-Asadi
October-December 2018, 30(4):216-220
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_149_17  PMID:30305784
Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hemodialysis on the hearing threshold in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine patients with CRF on regular hemodialysis were followed up for 1 year with a pure-tone audiometric examination every 6 months. Results: The mean age of the patients was 41.8 ± 9.2 years (range: 17–50 years). At the beginning of the study, 39 patients (66.1%) had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). During the 12-month follow-up, 6 more patients developed SNHL giving a point prevalence rate of 76.3% at the end of the study. The hearing loss was more evident in the higher frequencies. Of the studied patients, 64.4% showed deterioration of the hearing threshold. The mean hearing threshold at the beginning of the study was 29.2 ± 21.1 dB versus 36.9 ± 17.3 dB at the end of the study (P < 0.001). No significant relation was found between age, sex, serum electrolytes, blood urea, and duration of CRF and hearing loss. Multivariate analysis showed that the duration of hemodialysis was the only significant independent predictor of SNHL. Conclusion: SNHL is common in patients with CRF on hemodialysis. It was mild to moderate in the majority of patients. Hearing impairment was most obvious at the high frequencies. Most of the patients showed further deterioration in the hearing threshold with the duration of dialysis.
  1,701 151 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the screening of cervical cancer among women in New Delhi, India
Neha Dahiya, Kavita Aggarwal, Megha Chandra Singh, Suneela Garg, Rajesh Kumar
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_145_18  
Objective: Cervical cancer is one of the major concerns of public health importance in today's world. It is a leading cause of mortality in women of reproductive age group worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Reduction in mortality and morbidity due to cervical cancer is possible through early detection and treatment. The major factors influencing the early detection of cervical cancer are knowledge regarding risk factors, screening, Pap smear, and symptoms among women. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of women about the risk factors, symptoms, and prevention of cervical cancer. Data were obtained from 220 women who visited international trade fair using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Results: Only 75 study women (50.0%) had ever heard of cervical cancer. The knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its various domains was significantly higher in students and unmarried women. The foul-smelling vaginal discharge was the most common early symptom of cervical cancer according to most of the study women (26, 17.3%). Most of the study women (19, 12.7%) reported tobacco and smoking as the most common risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Only 39 women (26%) had ever heard of cervical cancer screening. Only 27 women (18.0%) ever had Pap smear done in the past and 87 women (58.0%) were willing to undergo cervical cancer screening is offered free of cost. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the lack of awareness in women regarding cervical cancer and its screening modalities. This necessitates spreading awareness regarding early symptoms and risk factors associated with cervical cancer for early detection and treatment initiation.
  1,812 26 -
REVIEW ARTICLE - BASIC
Salivary micro RNA as a potential biomarker in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review
T N Uma Maheswari, Archana Venugopal, Nivedhita Malli Sureshbabu, Prathiba Ramani
April-June 2018, 30(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_114_17  PMID:29875583
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are oral mucosal disorders which have a high potential to turn into malignancy. A recent report suggests that 16%–62% of epithelial dysplasia cases of OPMD undergo malignant transformation, showing the need for early detection of malignancy in these disorders. Micro RNA (miRNA) plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response, and hence, deregulation of miRNA is considered a signature of oral carcinogenesis. A search was done using MeSH terms in the PubMed, ScienceDirect databases, hand search, and finally, six studies were included in this systematic review. A total of 167 patients with oral cancer, 78 with OPMDs, 147 healthy controls, and 20 disease controls were analyzed for the expression of salivary miRNAs. Quality assessment based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool was used to obtain a risk of bias chart using Revman 5.3 software and it was proved that the study done by Zahran et al. in 2015 had a low risk of bias. The results of this study revealed upregulated miRNA 184 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 and miRNA 21 with an AUC of 0.73 and downregulated miRNA 145 with an AUC of 0.68, which proved that these miRNAs are significant in detecting early malignancy in OPMD and should be further analyzed in various populations. This systematic review explored the potential of expression of salivary miRNA in OPMD for future studies. This could pave the way to utilize saliva as a surrogate marker in diagnosing early malignant changes in OPMD.
  1,610 228 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Comparison of Apgar scores in breech presentations between vaginal and cesarean delivery
Jonny Karunia Fajar, Mohd Andalas, Harapan Harapan
January-March 2017, 29(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_5_17  PMID:28757760
Objective: The mode of delivery in breech presentation (BP) is controversial. Several studies have reported the advantages and disadvantages of delivery mode in BP. The aim of this study was to compare the Apgar scores in BPs between vaginal and cesarean delivery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Dr.Zainoel Abidin General Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Data on the mode of delivery and Apgar scores at 1 and 5min for infants with a BP were extracted from the medical records. Logistic regression was employed to assess the correlation between mode of delivery and Apgar scores. In addition, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarize findings from other regions. Results: A total of 205(3.9%) BPs among 5252 deliveries between January 2010 and December 2012 were analyzed for this study. There were 26% (52cases) vaginal and 74% (153cases) cesarean deliveries. The mode of delivery for BP had a significant association with Apgar score at 1min (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.462 [2.476–16.870], P=0.0001) and 5min (OR 95% CI =7.727 [1.416–42.175], P=0.018). Our meta-analysis showed that the delivery mode had a significant association with Apgar score in BP (OR: 3.69; 95% CI: 2.18–6.26, P=0.0001). Conclusions: There was a significant association between Apgar scores in BPs and mode of delivery. Our results suggest better outcomes for cesarean than vaginal delivery in BPs.
  1,646 176 3
Surgical results of a one-stage combined anterior lumbosacral fusion and posterior percutaneous pedicle screw fixation
Chien-Yuan Huang, Kuang-Ting Yeh, Tzai-Chiu Yu, Ru-Ping Lee, Ing-Ho Chen, Cheng-Huan Peng, Kuan-Lin Liu, Jen-Hung Wang, Wen-Tien Wu
January-March 2018, 30(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_186_17  PMID:29643712
Objectives: Lumbosacral fusion through either an anterior or a posterior approach to achieve good lordosis and stability is always a challenging surgical operation and is often accompanied by a higher rate of pseudarthrosis than when other lumbar segments are involved. This study evaluated the clinical and radiological results of lumbosacral fusions achieved through a combined anterior and posterior approach. Materials and Methods: From June 2008 to 2012, 20 patients who had L5–S1 instability and stenosis were consecutively treated, first by anterior interbody fusion using an allogenous strut bone graft through the pararectus approach and then by posterior pedicle screw fixation. A minimum of 1-year of clinical and radiological follow-up was conducted. Intraoperative blood loss, surgical time, and any surgery-related complications were recorded. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the patient's Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score. After 1 year, radiological outcomes were assessed by analyzing pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, and segmental lordosis using static plain films, while fusion stability was assessed using dynamic plain films. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss were 215 min and 325 cc, respectively. After 1 year, the VAS and ODI scores had significantly improved, and stable fusion with good lordotic curvature was obtained in all cases. Conclusion: The surgical results of the combined procedure are satisfactory in terms of the functional and radiological outcomes. Our method offers advantages regarding both anterior fusion and posterior fixation.
  1,556 231 -
REVIEW ARTICLES - CLINICAL
Medical leadership: An important and required competency for medical students
Tsung-Ying Chen
April-June 2018, 30(2):66-70
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_26_18  PMID:29875585
Good medical leadership is the key to building high-quality healthcare. However, in the development of medical careers, the teaching of leadership has traditionally not equaled that of technical and academic competencies. As a result of changes in personal standards, the quality of medical leadership has led to variations between different organizations, as well as occasional catastrophic failure in the standard of care provided for patients. Leaders in the medical profession have called for reform in healthcare in response to challenges in the system and improvements in public health. Furthermore, there has been an increased drive to see leadership education for doctors starting earlier, and continuing throughout their careers so that they can take on more important leadership roles throughout the healthcare system. Being a physician requires not only management and leadership but also the need to transfer competencies to communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be obtained through experience in teamwork under the supervision of teaching staff. Therefore, medical students are expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, take mutual responsibility and discuss their performance.
  1,602 183 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Bertolotti's syndrome in low-backache population: Classification and imaging findings
Reddy Ravikanth, Pooja Majumdar
April-June 2019, 31(2):90-95
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_209_17  PMID:31007488
Objective: Lumbosacral transition vertebrae (LSTVs) are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTVs are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard anteroposterior radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increases accuracy. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history and imaging studies. This study aimed to classify the anatomical variations in LSTV and determine, by plain radiography, if there exists a relationship between sacralization and low backache (LBP). Materials and Methods: Five hundred lumbosacral radiographs of LBP patients were examined after obtaining prior consent from the patient and approval from the “institutional ethics committee.” Data collection consisted of the patient's age at the time of imaging gender and number of lumbar vertebral bodies. Dysplastic transverse processes were classified according to the Castellvi radiographic classification system. The incidence of sacralization in patients and the control groups was reported, and the anomaly was compared according to the groups. Results: Of these patient groups, 134 were classified as positive for sacralization, which resulted in an incidence of 26.8%. The most common anatomical variant was Castellvi Type IA (7.6%). There were no statistically significant differences between men and women who had anomaly (P = 0.9256). Higher incidences of Type IB and Type IIB were found in men, but those results were not statistically significant (P = 0.133 and P = 0.581, respectively) when compared with the female group. Daily frequency and intensity of LBP were assessed in patients using visual analog scale (VAS) scores. The patients with LBP and no malformation reported an average pain level on the VAS for pain of 2.2 versus 5.2 in patients with LBP and a transitional vertebra, respectively. Conclusion: Based on our data, we conclude that lumbosacral transitional segments are a common cause in the low-backache population. However, no relationship was found between age and genders in this study. However, in comparison with the nonspecific low-backache group, the VAS scores were significantly higher and the pain duration was significantly longer in the LSTV group.
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CASE REPORTS
A rare case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis as a complication of sphenoid sinusitis
Ming-Chun Chen, Yu-Huai Ho, Pau-Nyen Chong, Jui-Hsia Chen
January-March 2019, 31(1):63-65
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_1_18  PMID:30692835
Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is a rare disorder and may present with severe complications due to its proximity to the orbital and intracranial areas. We report a 13-year-old boy hospitalized for septic shock with fever of unknown origin. Facial palsy was later noted. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a sphenoid mass and right cavernous sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. Biopsy revealed chronic rhinosinusitis. Complete recovery followed by an incision/drainage procedure and antibiotic treatment. Acute sphenoid sinusitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of septic manifestations mimicking central nervous system infection or cranial nerve palsy.
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The association of hyperthyroidism and immune thrombocytopenia: Are we still missing something?
Kalyan Mansukhbhai Shekhda
July-September 2018, 30(3):188-190
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_139_17  PMID:30069130
Though the American society of hematology Guidelines and British guidelines do not recommend screening of thyroid diseases in cases of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), more than 160 cases of hyperthyroidism associated with ITP have been reported. Numerous case reports would suggest that patients with ITP and concurrent hyperthyroidism would respond to control of thyroid disease rather than the standard ITP treatment. Although this issue is still debatable, we report a case of a young female with a previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism which was not well controlled, had presented with severe thrombocytopenia. Initially, all work-up had been done to find out the cause of thrombocytopenia. After all normal reports except deranged thyroid function tests, the patient was labeled as ITP and started on steroids. Even after a few months of steroid treatment, platelet counts had not improved. However, after starting antithyroid drugs, platelet counts had become normalized.
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A rare case of cefepime-induced cholestatic liver injury
Pei-Fei Liao, Yao-Kuang Wu, Kuo-Liang Huang, Hsin-Yi Chen
April-June 2019, 31(2):124-128
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_151_18  PMID:31007494
Cefepime is widely used in the hospital setting, and only a few studies have reported neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as side effects of this drug. Herein, we present a 93-year-old man who exhibited features of cholestatic hepatitis including elevated blood transaminases and direct-form predominant bilirubin levels after administration of cefepime. Blood liver tests showed total recovery after discontinuing the offending agent. Cefepime was probable to cause drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis in our patient since the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method score for cefepime was 7. No drug interactions were likely according to the Drug Interaction Probability Scale for this patient. No similar cases of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury related to cefepime have been reported previously. Hence, this rare condition requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment.
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