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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2019
Volume 31 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 135-199

Online since Tuesday, June 4, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Therapeutic potential of intravesical injections of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders due to regenerative deficiency p. 135
Qian-Sheng Ke, Jia-Fong Jhang, Teng-Yi Lin, Han-Chen Ho, Yuan-Hong Jiang, Yuan-Hsiang Hsu, Hann-Chorng Kuo
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_92_19  
The bladder urothelium plays an important role of barrier function to prevent influx of urinary toxic substance and bacteria. When there is insult to the urinary bladder, the urothelium will start to regenerate on injury. However, several factors might affect the regenerative function of bladder urothelium, including aging, chronic inflammation, and system diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Impairment of bladder mucosal regenerative function might result in defective urothelial cell differentiation as well as barrier function, which might be the underlying pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and recurrent bacterial cystitis. Our previous immunohistochemistry (IHC) study and electron microscopic study revealed that the loss of normal umbrella cells and defective junction proteins in IC/BPS and recurrent cystitis. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been previously used in many medical aspects as regenerative medicine therapy. PRP is rich in many growth factors and cytokines which modulate the process of inflammation and regeneration in the wound healing process. Recent pilot studies have shown that intravesical PRP injections improve IC symptoms and yield a success rate of 70% at 3 months after treatment. The results highly suggest that PRP injection could improve urothelial regenerative function and reduce chronic inflammation in IC patients. This article reviews recently published researches on the urothelial dysfunction biomarkers, urothelial cell differentiation, and urinary regenerative and inflammatory proteins in patients with IC/BPS or recurrent bacterial cystitis. The pathophysiology of the insufficient urothelial regeneration and differentiation; and chronic inflammation may induce urothelial dysfunction and further affect the regenerative ability of the diseased bladder urothelium in IC/BPS and recurrent bacterial cystitis are discussed.
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Anticoagulants for cancer-associated ischemic stroke p. 144
Jin-Yi Hsu, An-Bang Liu
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_55_19  
Patients with cancer-associated ischemic stroke pose similar clinical manifestations and image characteristics, mainly embolic infarction, as patients with atrial fibrillation do. D-dimer, a degraded product of fibrin polymer, is a useful indicator of hypercoagulability, which frequently increases in cancer-associated stroke, but not in stroke resulted from atrial fibrillation. The level of serum D-dimer is associated with mortality, prognosis, and recurrence of systemic thromboembolism in these patients. Theoretically, drugs block coagulation cascade, such as heparin and low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH), oral direct anticoagulants, could attenuate the status of hypercoagulation and decrease the amount of D-dimer. These drugs may be helpful to prevent thromboembolic events in patients with cancer-associated hypercoagulability. Vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, decreases the production of coagulation factors, but not interrupts coagulation cascade may not be helpful to decrease hypercoagulability, but increase the risk of bleeding. However, the treatment of cancer-associated embolic stroke is still controversial. This article reviews relevant clinical studies and proposes the applicability of direct oral anticoagulants from the pathophysiological mechanism.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Phenotypic profile of pulmonary aspergillosis and associated cellular immunity among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Maiduguri, Nigeria p. 149
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Halima Ali Shuwa, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Hafeez Aderinsayo Adekola, Amos Dangana
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_46_18  
Objective: Aspergillus causes many forms of pulmonary infectious diseases ranging from colonization (noninvasive) to invasive aspergillosis. This largely depends on the underlying host's lung health and immune status. Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA), especially the invasive form, occurs as opportunistic to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a result of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ lymphopenia. The majority of patients with comorbid HIV and aspergillosis go undiagnosed. This study aimed to isolate, identify the etiologies, and determine the prevalence of PA among HIV-infected persons with a productive cough (at least <2 weeks) at the HIV Clinics of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputum samples were collected from patients with negative tuberculosis results. The samples were individually inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide in duplicate for 7 days at 37°C and 25°C, respectively. The fungal isolates were examined morphologically and microscopically and identified using the standard biochemical reagents. CD4+ cell counts were performed using flow cytometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the patients data. All patients were antiretroviral naïve. Results: The prevalence of PA was 12.7% in these 150 patients. Of the 19 fungal culture-positive individuals, Aspergillus fumigatus accounted for the highest proportion of the isolates (8, 42.1%) followed by Aspergillus niger (5, 26.3%), Aspergillus flavus (4, 21.1%), and Aspergillus terreus (2, 10.5%). Based on the assessment of functionality of cellular immunity, HIV participants who were negative for PA (131/150) had significantly higher mean ± standard deviation CD4 T-cell counts (245.65 ± 178.32 cells/mL) than those with aspergillosis (126.13 ± 105.27 cells/mL) (P = 0.0051). PA was relatively highest among patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/mL (12. 34.3%) followed by those with CD4+ cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mL (5, 9.6%) and least among those with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mL (2, 3.2%). The Chi-square test showed a significant association between the prevalence of PA and the CD4+ cell count, age, and gender (P < 0.05) but not with occupation or education level (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that Aspergillus spp. is a significant etiology of acute productive cough in people living with HIV and this is related to the CD4+ cell count of coinfected persons.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Knowledge about and preventive practices against neonatal tetanus among young Nigerian women p. 154
CA Adegbenro, Samuel Anu Olowookere, FO Fehintola, PA Adegbenro, OT Orioke
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_55_18  
Objective: The objective of this study was carried out to determine the knowledge about and preventive practices against neonatal tetanus (NNT) in young women of reproductive age. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design of 380 randomly selected consenting young women of child-bearing age at a Nigerian tertiary educational institution. They completed a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge about and risk factors for NNT, willingness to receive the vaccine, and uptake of tetanus toxoid vaccine. Results: The mean age (standard deviation) of the women was 22.4 (4.6) years ranging from 15 to 30 years. The majority (64.5%) had poor knowledge of the causes of and risk factors for NNT with only 31% knowing that immunizing women against tetanus prevents NNT. Most of the women (58%) were unwilling to receive tetanus immunization. A total of 15.5% had received tetanus toxoid, but only 0.5% had completed the required dosage. A higher proportion of respondents with good knowledge about tetanus had tetanus toxoid immunization (28.1% vs. 8.6%; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Knowledge about NNT, willingness to receive the vaccine, and uptake of tetanus toxoid were unacceptably poor among respondents. There is a need for continuous education targeting young women on the link between the tetanus immunization status of women and the occurrence of NNT.
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Comparison of intramuscular methylergometrine, rectal misoprostol, and low-dose intravenous oxytocin in active management of the third stage of labor p. 158
Ruchi Jain, Sudesh Agrawal, Kamala Verma, Aastha Jain, Mayank Baid
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_89_18  
Objective: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) is a critical intervention for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), which is still the most common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objective of the study is to compare the effect of intramuscular methylergometrine, rectal misoprostol, and low-dose intravenous oxytocin in the AMTSL in terms of amount of blood loss and duration of the third stage of labor, cost-effectiveness, and side effect profile. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five pregnant patients admitted in the maternity ward for vaginal delivery from February 2017 to February 2018 received either intramuscular methylergometrine (0.2 mg) or rectal misoprostol (400 mcg) or low-dose intravenous oxytocin (5 units oxytocin in 100 mL normal saline) for AMTSL. Data were recorded in three groups: Group A (methylergometrine), Group B (misoprostol), and Group C (oxytocin) consisting of 25 cases each. Results: Mean blood loss was found to be least in methylergometrine group (246.87 ± 65.44 mL) as compared to misoprostol (346.13 ± 58.35 mL) and oxytocin (334.5 ± 69.20 mL) (P = 0.000) Mean duration of the third stage of labor was also least in methylergometrine group (6.21 ± 1.58 min) (P = 0.0008). Conclusion: Although methylergometrine was found to have higher incidence of side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and raised blood pressure, it was found to be the most effective drug for minimizing blood loss in the third stage of labor. In remote places where healthcare facilities are limited and drugs cannot be administered by parenteral route, rectal misoprostol remains an alternative.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Optimal imaging time for Tc-99m phytate lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with breast cancer p. 163
Ching-Chun Ho, Yu-Hung Chen, Shu-Hsin Liu, Hwa-Tsung Chen, Ming-Che Lee
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_88_18  
Objectives: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) sampling has become a standard practice in managing early-stage breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy is one of the major methods used. The radioactive tracer used in Taiwan is Tc-99m phytate. However, this agent is not commonly used around the world and the optimal imaging time has not been studied. Thus, we investigated the optimal imaging time of Tc-99m phytate lymphoscintigraphy for SLN mapping in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed SLN Tc-99m phytate lymphoscintigraphies in 135 patients with breast cancer between August 2013 and November 2017. The time for the first SLN to be visualized after radiotracer injection was recorded to determine the optimal imaging time. If no SLN was identified on imaging, the scan was continued to 60 min. We also recorded the presurgical technical and clinical factors to analyze the risk factors for nonvisualization of SLN. Each patient's postoperative axillary lymph node status was also recorded. Results: Axillary SLNs were identified on imaging in 94.8% of the patients. All first SLNs presented within 30 min. In 6 of 7 patients with negative imaging, SLNs were identified during surgery using either blue dye or a hand-held gamma probe. Nonvisualization of SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy was significantly associated with a lower injection dose (1.0 mCi vs. 2.0 mCi), 4-injection protocol (compared to 2-injection), and injection around an outer upper quadrant tumor. In addition, patients with axillary lymph node metastasis had a higher percentage of SLN image mapping failure, with a marginally significant difference. Conclusion: Based on our study, 30 min after Tc-99m phytate injection is the optimal time for lymphoscintigraphy and delayed imaging beyond 30 min is not necessary. In addition, a lower injection dose, the 4-injection method, and an injection near the outer upper quadrant tumor should be avoided to minimize nonvisualization of SLNs.
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The role of tea and coffee in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease p. 169
Tao-Yang Wei, Pang-Hsin Hsueh, Shu-Hui Wen, Chien-Lin Chen, Chia-Chi Wang
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_48_18  
Objective: The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing, and the disease has a close association with dietary habits. This study aims to investigate the role of tea and coffee drinking in the development of GERD. Materials and Methods: This study prospectively enrolled individuals who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a health checkup. Each participant completed the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ). Coffee or tea drinking was defined as drinking the beverage at least 4 days/week for 3 months. Heavy coffee or tea consumption was defined as drinking at least two cups every day. Results: A total of 1837 participants (970 men; age 51.57 ± 10.21 years), who had data on clinical characteristics and consumption of coffee and tea with or without additives such as milk or sugar were included for final analysis. Among them, 467 (25.4%) were diagnosed as having symptomatic GERD based on the RDQ score, and 427 (23.2%) had erosive esophagitis (EE) on endoscopy. Drinking coffee or tea was not associated with reflux symptoms or EE in univariate and multivariate analyses. In contrast, drinking coffee with milk was associated with reflux symptoms and drinking “tea and coffee” was associated with EE in univariate analysis. However, these associations became insignificant after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Drinking coffee or tea and adding milk or sugar was not associated with reflux symptoms or EE.
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Ischemic stroke following neck dissection in the elderly p. 177
Chuan-Yi Kuo, Yi-Ting Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Kuo-Chuan Hung
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_112_18  
Objective: Despite the known association of perioperative stroke with perioperative mortality, the prevalence of stroke following neck dissection in elderly patients remains unclear. This study compared the incidence of neck dissection-associated perioperative stroke in elderly and younger patients. Materials and Methods: Totally, 1057 patients receiving neck dissection for head and neck cancers between June 2012 and July 2016 were reviewed at a single center. The patients were divided into elderly (age ≥65 years, n = 177) and younger (age <65 years, n = 880) groups (mean age: 72.3 ± 6.1 and 53.3 ± 7.6, respectively). Patient, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics including diagnoses, comorbidities, length of hospitalization, and incidence of perioperative stroke were compared. Results: Younger patients were more likely to be male (P = 0.001) and to have received radiotherapy (P = 0.013). The prevalence of predisposing factors was higher in the elderly, including history of cerebral vascular accident (P = 0.002), hypertension (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.001), and coronary artery disease (P < 0.001). Elderly patients also had longer hospitalizations (P < 0.001) for which previous radiotherapy was identified as a risk factor (adjusted odds ratio = 3.79, P = 0.0078). Postoperative ischemic stroke was diagnosed in two elderly patients (1.1%), whereas no ischemic strokes occurred in the younger group (P = 0.028). The overall incidence of perioperative stroke was 0.19%. Conclusion: The incidence of perioperative stroke was higher in the elderly than in the younger group. Furthermore, the prevalence of ischemic stroke in elderly patients associated with neck dissection was higher than that previously reported in the aged population after general head and neck operations, highlighting an increased risk of stroke in elderly patients receiving extensive neck surgery.
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Utilization of a central venous catheter insertion care bundle in Taiwan: A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database p. 182
Hui-Chun Chung, Lih-Shinn Wang, Jung-Lun Wu, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_63_18  
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to explore medical care utilization associated with promoting the central venous catheter (CVC) care bundle plan using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the data from patients who were admitted to a medical center for the first time between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012, in the NHIRD. The control group was patients who were admitted at nine medical center hospitals that participated in the pilot plan, and the study group was patients who were admitted at other ten medical center hospitals that did not participate in the pilot plan, and the differences between groups were analyzed. Results: After implementing the CVC care bundle, the average hospital stay decreased significantly (18.43 ± 12.96 vs. 15.49 ± 10.16, P < 0.05). In addition, the study group patients were clinically less likely to require antibiotics than the control group (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.07, 1.71] vs. 0.62, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.96], P = 3768), and their medical expenses were lower (220, 618 ± 226, 419 vs. 208, 079 ± 193, 610, P > 05). Furthermore, the incidence rate of CVC-associated sepsis decreased from 12.59% to 5.66%. Conclusions: By implementing the CVC care bundle in clinical practice in accordance with national policies, medical utilization decreased, thereby considerably improving medical resource usage. These results confirmed that implementing the CVC care bundle possibly decreased medical utilization in clinical practice.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE - MEDICAL EDUCATION Top

An objective structured teaching exercise for faculty training and assessment of teaching ability in interprofessional collaborative practice and education p. 188
Hsiu-Chen Yeh, Sin-Yi Huang, Tsung-Ying Chen, Ming-Chen Hsieh
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_163_18  
Objective: Improving clinical teachers' ability to teach interprofessional collaborative practice warrants development in current faculty training programs; in particular, current education training emphasizes experiential learning and multiple teaching strategies. The purpose of this study was to establish a teaching model to apply interdisciplinary collaborative care and to improve clinical teachers' execution of interprofessional practices. Materials and Methods: Health-care faculty members were studied; this study assessed a teacher education curriculum for interprofessional education (IPE) and applied an objective structured teaching exercise (OSTE) to evaluate IPE execution by clinical teachers. Results: The OSTE improved clinical teachers' IPE execution, verifying the necessity for multistrategy teaching in faculty training programs. Conclusions: This study provides different types of interprofessional faculty training and assessments. Development of an OSTE requires long-term planning, and IPE should also be incorporated into formal programs.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Trabecular carcinoid tumor arising from a mature cystic teratoma p. 192
Hsiao-Chen Chiu, Yi-Lin Chen
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_91_18  
Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) are common benign tumors of the ovary. Coexistence of a carcinoid tumor inside an MCT is extremely rare. We present a 40-year-old woman who had intermittent abdominal pain and urinary frequency. An adnexal mass was detected during physical examination. Ultrasound indicated a 12.3 cm × 10.7 cm left ovarian mass. Surgical excision of the mass was performed, and histopathological examination revealed an MCT with three germ layers. The microcarcinoid tumor arising from an MCT showed a cord to trabecular pattern. The pathological diagnosis was a trabecular carcinoid tumor arising in an MCT. The patient did not present with carcinoid syndrome, and no recurrence was observed after 12 months of follow-up.
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Bilateral erector spinae plane blocks using a small volume of local anesthetic for acute pain control after single-port laparoscopic surgery p. 195
Yun-Chin Wong, Ming-Hwang Shyr
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_114_18  
In the era of enhanced recovery after surgery, clinicians are encouraged to develop optimized programs for patients who require surgery. Minimal intervention with laparoscopic surgery and multimodal pain management mostly with peripheral nerve block are key components. We are developing a departmental program for enhanced recovery after surgery for single-port laparoscopic surgery. We applied an erector spinae plane block, a novel, newly recognized block, bilaterally at the T10 transverse process with a small dose (10 mL) of local anesthetic. This method was effective and safe and resulted in successful analgesia in a patient who received single-port surgery. This surgery requires a 3–5 cm horizontal or longitudinal periumbilical incision, which was performed in this case, and our results were promising and encouraging.
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IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE Top

Seizure and left side weakness in a young female: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis p. 198
Wei-An Lai, Pei-Wen Chuang, Ming-Jen Tsai
DOI:10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_6_19  
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